Ganjang 간장(Soy Sauce) - 1

To make Ganjang (soy sauce), fermented soybeans are first soaked in salt water. Doenjang (soy bean paste) is separated from the mix, and the residual juice is fermented under the sun. During this fermenting period, amino acids, sugar, and salt made by enzymes create soy sauce¡s savory, sweet, and salty taste respectively. Organic acids also play a role in creating the scent and color of soy sauce.

Origin of Soy Sauce

Soy sauce is a by-product of doenjang (soy bean paste). According to historical records, soy sauce has been produced and used ever since the Goguryeo Period.There are various types of soy sauce, from haet soy sauce (fresh soy sauce) which is used in soups and seasoned vegetables to jin soy sauce (aged soy sauce) which is used in roasted, steamed, or hard-boiled dishes that have a dark color. Each type has a unique taste and is used for different purposes.According to Korean history, there was once a place called 'Jang-Gwang¡' in the heart of Seoul. Soy sauces of various ages were stored in more than 500 crocks (jars) at Jang-Gwang. Records show soy sauce made in 1907 were stored at Jang-Gwang until the break of the Korean War in 1950.

Effect of Soy Sauce

Soybean, an ingredient of soybean sauce, consists of 40% protein, 20% , 20% soluble nitrogen-free extract, 14% fermentable sugar, 10% water, 5.5% ash, 5.5% and vitamins.

Traditional Korean soybean sauce is made from soybeans only. The soluble carbohydrates contained in soybeans, such as sucrose, stachyose and raffinose, are used by micro-organisms such as bacillus subtilis, lactic acid germs, enzyme and fungi while soybeans are fermented. Therefore, little carbohydrates remain in finished meju (fermented soybeans).

Because of a low content of fermentable carbohydrates, fermented liquid diluted with brine contains 0.7% lactic acid, but alcoholic fermentation rarely occurs. Protein contained in soybeans is decomposed by protease and peptidase, micro-organisms in fermented soybeans, so the contents of peptide nitrogen and amino nitrogen are very high.

The content of glutamic acid is particularly high. Recently, with the completion of the "Study of the Mass Production of Traditional Korean Soybean Sauce," a joint task of the Leading Technology Development Project, funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, it has become possible to make traditional soybean sauce with superior aroma and taste, containing 1.0-1.2% nitrogen and 1% alcohol as a result of complementing the alcoholic fermentation process of soybean sauce.

Types of Soy Sauce

Soy sauce is classified into fermented soy sauce, chemical soy sauce (acid decomposed soy sauce), and mixed soy sauce according to production method.

-Fermented soy sauce

There are two production methods for fermented soy sauce. The traditional method used at home and the improved method used at factories for commercial production. Fermented soy sauce made with the traditional method is used in soups, whereas fermented soy sauce made with the improved method is used for boiling, seasoning, and parching purposes.

1) Traditional fermented soy sauce (Traditional method) To make traditional fermented soy sauce, fermented soybeans are first soaked in salt water. Doenjang (soy bean paste) is separated from the mix, and the residual fluid is fermented for 3 months. Traditional soy sauce made in this manner is normally used in soups. The tastes of soy sauce and doenjang are contradictory to each other. In order to make the finest soy sauce, well fermented soybeans of the highest quality must be fermented for at least 6 months.In contrast to doenjang, soy sauce must be left alone for a certain period of time. Soy sauce tastes better and looks darker the longer it is left alone. Haechandle plans to release fermented soy sauce made in this manner in the near future.

2) Improved fermented soy sauce Improved fermented soy sauce accounts for most of the improved soy sauce in the market today. This type of soy sauce is made by pickling fermented soybeans and starch for 3~4 days, in salt water. The entire fermenting process lasts at least 6 months. Improved fermented soy sauce is used for boiling, seasoning, and parching purposes. Our sea tangle fermented soy sauce is produced in the above method. Thanks to the undiluted sea tangle solution and bonito that are added, this soy sauce can be used for seasoning purposes.

When shaken, bubbles will appear on the surface of fermented soy sauce. These bubbles appear as protein decomposes into amino acids, which give fermented soy sauce a unique rich taste. The faster these bubbles disappear, the higher the quality of the soy sauce.

-Chemical soy sauce
Chemical soy sauce is made by artificially decomposing protein obtained from defatted soybeans. It normally takes only 3 days to produce chemical soy sauce. Because the taste of this soy sauce can be artificially adjusted by the manufacturer, chemical soy sauce has a much more delicious taste. (TN content is 1.8 times higher.) However, chemical soy sauce is dangerous from a nutrition viewpoint because cancer-causing substances may form in the production process.

-Mixed soy sauce
The undiluted solution of fermented soy sauce and acid decomposed soy sauce are mixed appropriately to create a milder taste than that of ordinary fermented soy sauce. Mixed soy sauce can also be made by adding carbohydrate ingredients to the undiluted solution of acid decomposed soy sauce, and then fermenting, filtering, and processing this mixture. This enables us to artificially control taste while maintaining the unique scent of fermented soy sauce. Although mixed soy sauce is currently the most widely marketed type of soy sauce, fermented soy sauce is soon expected to take over the market.

Taste of soy sauce

The taste of soy sauce is determined by the various components that are created by various enzymes throughout the fermenting process. The amino acid, sugar, and salt content form the savory, sweet, and salty taste of soy sauce respectively. Organic acids also play a role in creating the scent and color of soy sauce. The taste of soy sauce and doenjang (soy bean paste) are mutually contradictory. Fully fermented soy beans should be used in the production process.

-Smell The unique smell of soy sauce comes from volatile organic acids such as alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, benzine, ester, and phenol which are created by bacillus, sub-bacillus, and bacillus nato. Traditional soy sauce contains less organic acids and more butyric acids, which cause traditional soy sauce to have a foul odor.

-ColorSoy sauce has a brownish color due to the melanin and melanoadine that are created from amino acids as a result of the maillard reaction. Browning also occurs as tyrosine, which is a major component of soybeans, is oxidized by various tyrosinase.

-Taste The taste of soy sauce is determined by the amount of amino acids, organic acids, and sugar that is created by enzymes in the fermenting process. Galactose and glucose, which account for 1.6~1.7% of the total content, are the key determinants of taste in traditional soy sauce. In the case of improved soy sauce, greater wheat content leads to a sweeter taste. However, this wheat content transforms into alcohol or organic acids in the later part of the fermenting period. The savory taste of soy sauce comes from the tyramine and histamine content in soy sauce.

-A comparison of ingredientsTraditional soy sauce has a higher salt content and lower nitrogen, organic acid, and sugar content than improved soy sauce. As a result, traditional soy sauce has a bad appearance, taste, and smell but is much more nutritious.

1 comment:

  1. This soy recipe looks extraordinarily desirable!. I'm a vegetarian so as you may have guessed, I try to avoid eating animal source food. I feel better just eating vegetables and fruits.